The Galactic Republic, commonly known as the Republic or the Old Republic, was a democratic union of sovereign star systems that governed the galaxy for a thousand years prior to the rise of the Galactic Empire. The Republic’s capital planetwas Coruscant, an ecumenopolis—known as Galactic City—located in the Core Worlds. Its governing body, the Galactic Senate was headquartered on Coruscant where thousands of senators gathered to represent their homeworlds and debate politics under the supervision of the democratically elected Supreme Chancellor. The Jedi Order, a monastic order of Force-sensitive knights, maintained a close relationship with the Republic and, therefore, utilized the Jedi Temple on Coruscant as their primary base of operations.
There were no large-scale conflicts or pan-galactic armiesduring most of the Republic’s history, not while the Jedi served as guardians of peace and justice. However, this age of peacecame to an end by the time the Republic was in its death throes. Following the Invasion of Naboo in 32 BBY, thousands of disaffected worlds seceded en masse to form the Confederacy of Independent Systems by 22 BBY. As a result, the galaxy fell into a state of open war, known as the Clone Wars for the first time in a thousand years. During the conflict, the Republic underwent a massive military buildup beginning with the mobilization of the Grand Army of the Republic. Led by a cadre of Jedi Generals, millions of Republic clone troopers deployed across the galaxy to defend loyalist worlds against the Separatist rebellion. As the war carried on, the Senate’s authority gradually eroded due to the increasing influence of Supreme Chancellor Sheev Palpatine, whose true identity was Darth Sidious—the Dark Lord of the Sith who masterminded the civil war as a means to acquire dictatorial powers. The CloneWars ended in 19 BBY shortly after Sidious initiated Order 66, an event that marked the beginning of the Jedi Purge in which thousands of Jedi were betrayed and executed by their soldiersduring the waning days of the conflict. With the fall of the Jedi and the Senate firmly under his control, Sidious declaredhimself Emperor and, therefore, supplanted the old democracy with a new regime known as the Galactic Empire.
Sidious consolidated his reign by vastly expanding the Imperial Military. Although he preserved the Imperial Senate for two decades, the legislative body was disbanded following the completion of the Death Star in 0 BBY, thereby purging the Empire of its last connection to the Republic. Despite this, the Empire was ultimately defeated by the Alliance to Restore the Republic in 5 ABY, five years after the Battle of Yavinand one year after the Emperor’s death at the Battle of Endor in 4 ABY. With the signing of the Galactic Concordance, the newly-formed New Republic ushered the galaxy into a new era that lasted for thirty years until the Hosnian Cataclysm in 34 ABY. Once again the Republic had fallen, this time to the First Order, although the Resistance vowed to keep fighting until the Republic was restored.